How does ecstasy affect the synapse

Added: Shakeisha Pan - Date: 05.11.2021 19:58 - Views: 38597 - Clicks: 1482

Over substances have been identified in chocolate. Some of these, including caffeine and theobromine another, less powerful stimulant could actually cause dependency effects. But the amounts of these substances in chocolate are too small to really have any effect. The same goes for phenylethylamine, a substance related to a family of stimulants called amphetamines. For example, chocolate contains less phenylethylamine than goat cheese.

Anandamide, a neurotransmitter produced naturally by the brain, has also been isolated in chocolate. The neural receptors for anandamide are the same ones to which THC, the main active ingredient in cannabis, binds. Be that as it may, many scientists agree that dependency on chocolate could simply be due to its taste, which causes a sensation of intense pleasure that people want to repeat. Dopamine appeared very early in the course of evolution and is involved in many functions that are essential for survival of the organism, such as motricity, attentiveness, motivation, learning, and memorization.

But most of all, dopamine is a key element in identifying natural rewards for the organism. These natural stimuli such as food and water cause individuals to engage in approach behaviours. Dopamine is also involved in unconscious memorization of s associated with these rewards.

It has now been established that all substances that trigger dependencies in human beings increase the release of a neuromediator, dopamine, in a specific area of the brain: the nucleus accumbens. Click on the names of each of the following drugs to read about how they work and what effects they have. Alcohol Opiates heroin, morphine, etc. Caffeine Amphetamines Cannabis Ecstasy Benzodiazepines. Ecstasy MDMA is a synthetic drug.

It acts simultaneously as a stimulant and a hallucinogen because of its molecular structure, which is similar to that of both amphetamines and LSD. While ecstasy also potentiates the effects of norepinephrine and dopamine, it is distinguished from other psychostimulants by its strong affinity for serotonin transporters.

The initial effect of ecstasy is thus an increased release of serotonin by the serotonergic neurons. The individual may then experience increased energy, euphoria, and the suppression of certain inhibitions in relating to other people. A few hours later, there is a decrease in serotonin levels, amplified by the reduced activity of tryptophane hydroxylase, the enzyme responsible for synthesizing serotonin. This decrease can last much longer than the initial increase.

Once again, an artificial increase in the level of a neurotransmitter exercises negative feedback on the enzyme that manufactures it. As a result, when intake of the drug ceases, the excess turns into a shortage. Like all psychoactive drugs that produce a sensation of pleasure, ecstasy also increases the release of dopamine into the reward circuit. In addition, the extra serotonin produced by ecstasy le indirectly to excitement of the dopaminergic neurons by the serotonergic neurons that connect to them. The toxicity of ecstasy for humans has not been clearly established, but animal studies have shown that chronic high doses of MDMA lead to selective destruction of the terminal buttons of the serotonergic neurons.

For a description of the effects of ecstasy and the risks of dependency associated with it, click on the following links:. Funding for this site is provided by readers like you. Pleasure-Seeking Behaviour. Avoiding Pain.

How does ecstasy affect the synapse

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